Steps and details of writing a paper


1- Introduction 

It contains three paragraphs

      1- Importance of the topic

      2- Survey about the topic you are working with (References divided into groups                                                                                   (Numerical & experimental or Laminar & turbulent .. etc))

      3- The goal of research (you can start with (from previous review this point isn’t examined))


2- Results 

      1- Start with general description (this increased and the other decreased) 

      2- Physical meaning & why it happens

      3- Relate the figure with the previous figure


3- Conclusions

From the previous results, we concluded that:- (It contains Intensive results)


4- Abstract 

It should be a total of about 200 words maximum. The abstract should be a single paragraph and should follow the style of structured abstracts, but without headings:

1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study;

2) Methods: Describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied. Include any relevant preregistration numbers, and species and strains of any animals used.

3) Results: Summarize the article’s main findings; and

4) Conclusion: Indicate the main conclusions or interpretations.

The abstract should be an objective representation of the article: it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.


For more details see Fluids journal Instructions for authors



It contains

    1- Opening sentence

    2- Objectives

    3- The ways to reach them

    4- A very brief summary of the most important results and conclusions





  1. Don’t procrastinate;
  2. Review the notes and renew the literature search;
  3. Determine who your audience is – most likely reviewers, so get their concerns firstly addressed;
  4. Create the outline and get the big picture done, i.e., complete the first draft while resisting the temptation to correct and edit as you go; the logical sequence of data/tables/figures may be the outline; while writing the first draft, take notes indicating what references might be needed and would be about, but don’t stop to collect the references;
  5. Begin with the easier part of the task – experimental section rather than the introduction; then follows the results and discussion section;
  6. Then comes the really hard part – critical editing where you make sure that the English is coherent and the science is correct;
  7. Write the conclusion in a numbered format;
  8. Then comes the abstract and the acknowledgements;
  9. Now comes the introduction, the two most important things to address are the purpose and relevant background;
  10. Then collect the references.


 Some final notes:

  1. Always check the manuscript requirements for the journal of interests.
  2. A few references on writing. Please refer to the video.



An Example of an original article at 

Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering